This is not a conclusive list. Please feel free to add any!
Alkaline diet: The avoidance of relatively acidic foods – foods with low pH levels – such as grains, dairy, meat, sugar, alcohol, caffeine and fungi. Proponents believe such a diet may have health benefits; critics consider the arguments to have no scientific basis.
Blood Type Diet: A diet based on a belief that people's diets should reflect their blood types.
Dr. Hay diet: Developed by William Howard Hay in the 1920s. Divides foods into separate groups, and suggests that proteins and carbohydrates should not be consumed in the same meal.
Eat-clean diet: Focusses on eating foods without preservatives, and on mixing lean proteins with complex carbohydrates.
Feingold diet: A diet which attempts to combat hyperactivity by avoiding foods with certain synthetic additives and sweeteners.
Fit for Life diet: The dietary aspect to Fit for Life, a book by Harvey and Marilyn Diamond. Its recommendations include not combining protein and carbohydrates, not drinking water at meal time, and avoiding dairy foods.
Food combining diet: A nutritional approach where certain food types are deliberately consumed together or separately. For instance, some weight control diets suggest that proteins and carbohydrates should not be consumed in the same meal.
F-plan diet: A high-fibre diet, intended to facilitate weight loss.
Fruitarian diet: A diet which predominantly consists of raw fruit.
Gerson therapy: A form of alternative medicine, the diet is low salt, low fat and vegetarian, and also involves taking specific supplements. It was developed by Max Gerson, who claimed the therapy could cure cancer and chronic, degenerative diseases. These claims have not been scientifically proven, and the American Cancer Society claims that elements of the therapy have caused serious illness and death.
The Graham Diet: A vegetarian diet which promotes whole-wheat flour and discourages the consumption of stimulants such as alcohol and caffeine. Developed by Sylvester Graham in the 19th century.
Hay diet: A food-combining diet.
High-protein diet: A diet in which high quantities of protein are consumed with the intention of building muscle. Not to be confused with low-carb diets, where the intention is to lose weight by restricting carbohydrates.
High residue diet: A diet in which high quantities of dietary fiber are consumed. High-fiber foods include certain fruits, vegetables, nuts and grains.
The IF Diet: A diet using 3 kinds of Intermittent Fasting.
Inuit diet: Inuit people traditionally consume food that is fished, hunted or gathered locally; predominantly meat and fish.
Jenny Craig: A weight-loss program from Jenny Craig, Inc. It includes weight counselling among other elements. The dietary aspect involves the consumption of pre-packaged food produced by the company.
Ketogenic Diet A ketogenic diet (keto) is a very low-carb diet, which turns the body into a fat-burning machine. It has many potential benefits for weight loss, health and performance, but also some potential initial side effects.
Low carbon diet: Consuming food which has been produced, prepared and transported with a minimum of associated greenhouse gas emissions. An example of this was explored in the book 100-Mile Diet, in which the authors only consumed food grown within 100 miles of their residence for a year. People who follow this type of diet are sometimes known as locavores.
Low glycemic index diet
Low sodium diet
Macrobiotic diet: A diet in which processed food is avoided. Common components include grains, beans and vegetables.
Master Cleanse: A form of juice fasting.
Medifast Diet: A weight-loss diet based on foods sold by Medifast, Inc.
Mediterranean Diet: A diet based on habits of some southern European countries. One of the more distinct features is that olive oil is used as the primary source of fat.
Montignac diet: A weight-loss diet characterised by consuming carbohydrates with a low glycemic index.
Negative calorie diet: A claim by many weight-loss diets that some foods take more calories to digest than they provide, such as celery. The basis for this claim is disputed.
Okinawa diet: A low-calorie diet based on the traditional eating habits of people from the Ryukyu Islands. Okinawans are the longest lived people in the world.
Omnivore: An omnivore consumes both plant and animal-based food.
Organic food diet: A diet consisting only of food which is organic – it has not been produced with modern inputs such as chemical fertilizers, genetic modification, irradiation or food additives.
Paleolithic diet: (Paleo Diet) Can refer either to the eating habits of humans during the Paleolithic era, or of modern dietary plans based on these habits.
Prison loaf diet: A meal replacement served in some United States prisons to inmates who are not trusted to use cutlery. Its composition varies between institutions and states, but as a replacement for standard food, it is intended to provide inmates with all their dietary needs.
Pritikin Program for Diet and Exercise: A diet which focusses on the consumption of unprocessed food.
Raw foodism: (Raw Food Diet) A diet which centres on the consumption of uncooked and unprocessed food. Often associated with a vegetarian diet, although some raw food dieters do consume raw meat
Scarsdale Medical Diet
Slimming World diet
Smart For Life
Sugar Busters: Focuses on restricting the consumption of refined carbohydrates, particularly sugars.
Swank diet: Focuses on restricting the consumption of saturated fat.
Zone diet: A diet in which a person attempts to split calorie intake from carbohydrates, proteins and fats in a 40:30:30 ratio.